Adjoint Functors Induce Monads and Comonads

It is folklore knowledge that a pair of adjoint functors induces a monad and a comonad. Due to my recent work, I had to load relevant information into my brain cache. However, it turned out to be hard for me to find all the pieces of information I need in one place. Therefore, I am going to summarise here what I know and need, hoping it will be helpful for someone like me.